英语独立主格结构学习要点

2020年12月29日 0 条评论 315 次阅读 0 人点赞

一、独立主格结构的特点
独立主格结构是一个名词或代词(作为逻辑主语),加上一个形容词、副词、介词短语、分词、不定式等在句中作状语。它有以下三个特点:一是独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在;二是其中的名词或代词与后面的形容词、副词、介词短语、分词、不定式等存在逻辑上的主谓关系;三是独立主格结构一般用逗号与主句分开,但与主句之间不能使用任何连接词。


二、独立主格结构的主要形式
1. 名词(代词)+现在分词
We shall play the match tomorrow, weather permitting. 明天假设天气好,我们就进行比赛。
The question being settled, we went home. 问题解决之后,我们就回家了。
The monitor being ill, we’d better put the meeting off. 班长病了,我们最好还是延期开会吧。
2. 名词(代词)+过去分词
The job finished, we went home. 工作结束后我们就回家了。
The last bus having gone, we had to walk home. 最后一班公车已经走了,我们必须走路回家。
More time given, we should have done the job much better. 如果给我们更多的时间,我们会把工作做得更好。
3. 名词(代词)+不定式
Nobody to come tomorrow, we will have to put off the meeting till next week. 如果明天没有人来,我们将把会议推迟到下周。
So many people to help him, he is sure to succeed. 有如此多的人来帮助他,他一定会成功的。
4. 名词(代词)+介词短语
A girl came in, book in hand. 一个少女进来了,手里拿着书。
5. 名词(代词)+形容词或副词
She sat at the table, collar off, head down, and pen in position, ready to begin the long letter. 她坐在桌前,衣领已解掉,头低了下来,拿好钢笔,准备开始写一封长信。
6. There being +名词(代词)
There being nothing else to do, we went home. 没有别的事可做,我们就回家了。
There being no further business, I declare the meeting closed. 没有再要讨论的事了,我宣布散会。
7. It being +名词(代词)
It being Christmas, the government offices were closed. 由于圣诞节的缘故,政府机关都休息。
It being a holiday, all the shops were shut. 由于今天是假日,所有商店都关门了。


三、独立主格结构的主要用法
独立主格结构主要表示谓语动词发生的时间、原因、条件或伴随情况等,相当于一个状语从句或并列句。
1. 用作时间状语
The work done (=After the work had been done), we went home. 工作完成后,我们就回家了。
2. 用作条件状语
Weather permitting (=If weather permits), they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow. 如果天气允许的话,他们将在明天组织一次海滨小游。
3. 用作原因状语
An important lecture to be given tomorrow (=As an important lecture will be given tomorrow), the professor has to stay up late into the night. 因为明天要发表一个重要的演讲,教授不得不熬夜到很晚。
4. 用作伴随状语
He was lying on the grass, his hands crossed under his head (=and his hands were crossed under his head).他躺在草地上,两手交叉枕在脑后。
5. 表示补充说明
A hunter came in, his face red with cold (=and his face was red with cold). 一个猎人走了进来,他的脸冻得通红。
We redoubled our efforts, each man working like two. 我们加倍努力,一个人干两个人的活。
注:独立主格结构表示时间、条件或原因时,相当于一个状语从句,一般放在句首,表示原因时还可放在句末;表伴随状况或补充说明时,相当于一个并列句,通常放于句末。


四、使用独立主格结构的几个错点
1. 与状语从句的转换问题:当状语从句的主语与主句的主语不是指同一个对象时,可用独立主格结构取代状语从句,但不再保留连词。如:
After class was over (=Class being over / Class over), the students soon left the classroom.下课后,学生很快离开了课室。
2. 关于being / having been的省略问题:在下列两种情况下,独立主格结构中的being(或having been)不能省略。如:
① 独立主格的逻辑主语是代词时。如:
It being Sunday, we went to church.因为是星期天,我们去了做礼拜。
② 在There being+名词的结构中。如:
There being no bus, we had to go home on foot.因为没有公共汽车,所以我们不得不步行回家。
3. 物主代词或冠词的去留问题:在“名词(或代词)+介词短语”构成的独立主格结构中,一般不用形容词性物主代词和冠词。如:
Miss Smith entered the classroom, book in hand.史密斯先生走进了课室,手里拿着一本书。
比较with的复合结构:Miss Smith entered the classroom, with a book in his hand.
4. 所有格的问题:独立主格结构没有所有格形式。如:
The chief-editor arriving, we began the meeting.主编来了,我们开始开会。
比较动名词复合结构:
The chief-editor’s arriving made us very surprised.
5. 完成式的使用问题:独立主格结构作时间或原因状语时,可用完成时,表示该动作发生在谓语之前。如:
The listeners having taken their seats, the concert began.听众坐好后,音乐会开始了。
Tom having been late over and over, his boss was very disappointed.由于汤姆一再迟到,他的老板非常失望。

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